After looking at it a couple times, it seems like the intent behind the original question would be categorized as meta. But the actual question as posed (under heading This Question):
In which respects does academia vary more than many people expect?
is a question which is not a meta question. It would belong on the main site topically, though perhaps violate one rule or another given how open-ended it is.
Suggestion: The question remains on meta but is updated slightly. Something like the following, though I'm by no means married to the precise wording:
What are some common respects in which academia varies that have led to overly-generalized answers in the past?
The topic-by-topic answers then seem right to me in this context, if extensive. In some ways they could each also be their own questions and answers on the main site, but maybe not good ones according to some of our policies.
For instance, I think each topic would be a "list question" on the main site. The lists seem to be worth having here on meta to signpost a specific genre of problems we encounter in the Q&A format. They're impossible to complete as standalone main site questions.