There is a question about perceptions of students with disabilities using the "reasonable accommodation" of extra time for tests. That's an interesting question, and sent me hunting for research about perceptions. I found some articles.
But the question asks other things too. Maybe it's asking for tactical advice based on people's perceptions. But it's hard to be sure if that's what the OP meant.
I have not voted to reopen the question because I think it needs to be edited first. But I can't figure out how to do that.
Based on answers and comments received so far, this question looks like it may generate polemics, misunderstandings, things said that people might (or should) regret later, bitter reactions....
I suppose the easy way out would be to edit the question to focus on a reference request, to find out what has been found in studies regarding professors' perceptions of accommodations.
Another way to narrow the focus would be to ask what is permitted and not permitted in the U.S.: is it a violation of 504, ADA and/or FERPA for a reference to (a) flag the student as having used an extra time accommodation, or (b) use the fact of the extra time to un-level the playing field after the fact?
I just wish I knew what motivated the question for the OP. Is it that s/he is trying to decide whether to ask for or utilize accommodations?
They are all interesting questions, but I think that as currently written, the questions is just going to generate nonconstructive debate. I don't enjoy watching respected colleagues here on Academia SE say bigoted, embarrassing things.
So... can someone please help edit the question so that it will not lead to a lot of acrimony?